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French emergency coins

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I want in this topic show the French emergency coins (my collection).


These coins are very simple (in terms of design), but interesting in a historical period, which is considered the "golden age" for the production of private currencies (1914-1927).


France has gone through four stages, which produced "surrogate money." These four periods marked grave financial and economic situation of the country associated with revolutions and wars. National currency had a limited circulation, as gold, silver, bronze and other metals is primarily used in coinage, and the military.


1. The French Revolution


Beginning of the revolution considered taking of the Bastille July 14, 1789. Its the end of the different historians consider a July 27, 1794 (Thermidorian Reaction) or 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire coup).


As a result of this revolution, there have been major social and political changes. The old order was destroyed. France from a monarchy into a republic. Motto - Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Were hailed as freedom and equality of citizens.


In the course of this revolution were "reliable paper money." Several issuers to issue and metal coins.


2. Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871



This military conflict occurred between the Empire of Napoleon III and Prussia, which sought to European hegemony. War provoked Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, and formally began its Napoleon III. As a result, France was defeated, and there was a collapse of the French Empire.


As a result, the French regions of Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by Germany. During this period in these areas in 64 cities produced German Notgeld.


In many French cities during this period disappeared funds small denominations, and have been introduced tickets and paper money emergency. All these measures have contributed to assist in the preservation and restoration of the country's economy.



3. The First World War 1914-1918 years


During the First World War and after the crisis was raging in the country, the economy is suffocating from lack of cash. In contrast to previous emergencies were invented new means of payment - money cardboard and mark-coins.


During this period, emergency money can be divided into two broad categories:


- "Semi-official". Issuers were chambers of commerce, trade and industry associations, municipalities. This currency was allowed to produce in accordance with the decision of 16 August 1914. This extreme currency was legal and signs should be deposited in the Bank of France. Such money had wide circulation in the municipalities, regions, cities, etc.


- "Private issues". Issuers were various commercial organizations, institutions, factories, shops, bakeries, restaurants and cafes, cooperatives, public and charitable foundations, transport and other companies. This currency was issued without the permission of the central government, without the deposit of a bank, which deprived any guarantee solvency of money. Workers receive such currency as part of wages - for payment in canteens and various household and social services, the purchase of essential goods in certain stores and cooperatives ...


4. World War II years 1939-1945


During this period, the introduction of the emergency money was due to the closure of many branches of the Bank of France and the counters of the Treasury in connection with the threat of the promotion of the German army into the territory of France.




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Ahun City

The anonymous coal company produced its currency, which was intended to buy bread.


In this case, the face value of 5 francs (brass).

Obverse - the name of the company, at the bottom - French departement CREUSE.


Reverse - 5 francs paid for the bread. Under the hole name of the engraver Adin from Paris.




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Amiens City


Chamber of Commerce
Chamber of Commerce - a non-governmental organization representing the interests of commercial, industrial and service companies in the city of Amiens. The Chamber can also manipulate objects of these companies on their behalf.
The organization is under the dual supervision - Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Commerce and Handicrafts.
In one form or another the Chamber of Commerce was established in 1600. 
The  first name was "city consuls» («Consuls de Ville»).
According to the decision of the French State August 16, 1914, to address the shortage of cash due to the crisis caused by the First World War (1914-1918), a trading company of Amiens began to produce its own currency. This currency was supposed to be accompanied by a guarantee of putting it deposited in the Bank of France and was in circulation throughout the city of Amiens.
Tokens were issued in 1920 (graver Bory), 1921 and 1922 (graver Thevenon).









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Company "Riz Lacroix".


Company "Riz Lacroix" was created in 1867 by Leonid Lacroix. The name "Lacroix" was taken in honor of the family Lacroix, who produced high-quality paper. The word "Riz" is associated with the word "rice", ie made "rice paper" (its name is obviously on the original product for its production - rice straw). Sometimes the company name is pronounced "Riz La +".


It all started from 1532, when Pierre Lacroix began producing high-quality paper stickers on a delightful champagne "Perigord". This has been documented.


In 1660, after many years of continuous and careful experimentation was made special paper for wrapping tobacco. While this "alternative" was more expensive, and people are still using paper that could be found "at hand".


In 1736, demand for the products of the family Lacroix was so high that production increased many times.


After the revolution in 1789, when France was in constant conflict and contradictions, the soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte used the documents as wrappers for tobacco. Realizing his soldiers, in 1796, Bonaparte gave the family Lacroix license for the production of tissue paper.


In 1865 the family Lacroix significantly improves the quality of products, creating a rice roll paper. The success was overwhelming, and in 1867 the family Lacroix creates a company (using the word "rice"), entitled "Reese Lacroix." Head of the company becomes Leonid Lacroix.


In 1900, having won its products to France, the company entered the international market. The brand has spread worldwide. In Europe, North America, Asia, attended the roll paper from "La Riz +".


By 1906 the company produces 300 varieties of paper, including a novelty at the time - the paper with the smell of menthol and strawberry.


In 1928, the company invented the first rolling machine for the production of paper.


Currently, the brand owned by the British company Imperial Tobacco.







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Thanks for posting these tokens, and for the information surrounding them (especially the fascinating data concerning`Rizla')


I have a few of the world war I emergency tokens of France. The best reference I know (and use) for these is a paper catalogue by Ciani. Do you have any other suggestions (authors) for studying these pieces?

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Aubenas City

Ardennes company "Electric tram". 
September 14, 1897, it was decided to establish a tram line, which will connect the two settlements Aubin and Val -les-Bains, but November 25, 1898 was put into operation this line is 6 km long.  
This line was close in May 1, 1932. 
To travel by tram Ardennes company "Electric tram" were issued tokens. Engraver - Thevenon.


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