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Iron coins 1916


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1 Kopek 1916 A



2 Kopek 1916 J



3 Kopek 1916 A


During the First World War Germany invaded Russia and occupied large areas in western parts of the Empire. Poland was lost in 1915. For the occupied lands german military authors issued these coins and some banknotes. Coins, made in Berlin(A) and Hamburg(J), are made of iron and they depict a german iron cross with nominal value and date on the reverse, and on the obverse is the famous legend: "GEBIET DES OBERBEFEHLSHABERS OST", meaning "the area of the commander in chief of the east", who was Paul von Hindenburg.



Portrait of Paul von Hindenburg on german 2 reichsmark 1939 B.

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Interesting that the authority issuers name is in German, but the denomination is in Russian.


Similarly when the Germans overran Ukraine in 1941 they planned a series of Karbonetz currency all in the Ukrainian language, but then they released it with all German except the denomination on the reverse.

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