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About majestic12

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    The tooth is out there.
  • Birthday 05/10/1980

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    A galaxy far, far away...
  • Interests
    Collecting old coins, stamps, and gemstones.
  1. Yes, he also issued Gold Mohurs, including the famous 1000 Mohur gold piece weighing an astonishing 11,935.8 gm (almost 12 kg!). More examples of his coins can be found here.
  2. Emperor Jahangir, Color and gold on paper, 17th century (Info at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jahangir) Description (from Catalogue of Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore: Vol. II by R.B. Whitehead): "On the silver coins that issued from the Ahmadabad mint during the first nine months of Jahangir's reign, the emperor is called by his pre-ascention name Salim. The first five coins starting from the month Aban are dated '50', referring to the fiftieth year of Akbar's reign, while the other four are of regnal year 2. Salimi coppers are also known." This coin has the Malik-al-Mulk (Lord of the Realm) couplet: Malik-al-Mulk Sikka-e-Zad Bar Zar Salim Shah Sultan, Shah Akbar The Lord of the Realm Struck Money of Gold Salim Shah Sultan, Shah Akbar('s son) Mass=11.4 g Obverse Malik-al-Mulk Sikka-e-Zad Bar Zar (The Lord of the Realm Struck Money of Gold); Zarb Ahmadabad (Struck at Ahmadabad) Reverse Salim Shah Sultan, Shah Akbar [salim Shah Sultan, Shah Akbar('s son)]; Ilahi month Khurdad (Zodiac sign Gemini); RY 2
  3. Mass=11.3 g Description (from The Standard Guide to South Asian Coins and Paper Money Since 1556 and Mr. Lingen's comments on Zeno): "During the last decade of Akbar's reign, his son Salim [later Emperor Jahangir] grew increasingly restive in his desire to assume supreme power. He rebelled outright several times, and, as governor of Allahbad Province, refused to recognize Akbar's suzereignty. The silver coins of Allahabad of this period were issued anonymously without following the imperial style, but with a Persian poetic couplet [and sometimes the Ilahi month and date. Ilahi years 44 to 49 are known, as well as a not dated variety (this one)]." From The Oxford History of India by Vincent A. Smith: "Prince Salim continued in open rebellion, holding court as a king in Allahabad. In August 1602 he inflicted a terrible blow upon his father's feelings by hiring a robber chief named Bir Singh Bundela to murder Akbar's trusted friend and counsellor Abu-l Fazl, whom the prince hated and feared. A temporary and insincere reconciliation between father and son was patched up by Salima Begam in 1603. But no real peace was possible until after the death of Prince Daniyal, which occurred in April 1604, when he died from effects of drink, like his brother Murad. Salim being then the only son left, Akbar became really anxious to arrange terms with him. The one other possible successor was Salim's son, Prince Khusru, a popular and amiable youth, whose claims were favoured by Raja Man Singh and Aziz Koka. In November 1604 Salim was persuaded to come to court, probably under threats that, if he refused, Khusru would be declared heir apparent. His father recieved him with seeming cordiality. He then drew him suddenly into an inner apartment, slapped him soundly in the face, and confined him in a bathroom under the charge of a physician and two servants, as if he were a lunatic requiring medical treatment. After a short time, the length of which is variously stated, Akbar released his son, restored him to favour, made him viceroy of the province to which Danuyal had been appointed, and allowed him to reside at Agra as the acknowleded heir apparent The prince was cowed by his father's rough handling and gave no further trouble." This coin has the Bagharb-wa-Sharq (In the West and the East) couplet: Hamesha Hamchu Z're Mihir Wa Mah Raij Bad Bagharb-wa-Sharq Jahan Sikka Allahabad Like the Gold of Sun* and the Moon, May Always be Current, In the West and the East of the World, the Coin of Allahabad *I think "Gold" here applies only to "Mihir" (Sun) and not "Mah" (moon). Due to similarity of colour, gold is often equated with the sun and moon with silver in poetic couplets. Or maybe "Z're" in this couplet was intended to have a more generic meaning (e.g., money). Obverse Hamesha Hamchu Z're Mihir Wa Mah Raij Bad (Like the Gold of Sun and the Moon, May Always be Current) Reverse Bagharb-wa-Sharq Jahan Sikka Allahabad (In the West and the East of the World, the Coin of Allahabad)
  4. Jahandar Shah (AH1124) (Jahandar="World-owner") Accession: 10 April 1712 Deposition: 3 Jan 1713 Obverse Abu'l Fateh Couplet: Dar Aafak Zad Sikka Chun Mihr Wa Mah Abu Al-Fateh Ghazi Jahandar Shah Stuck Coin in the horizons like sun and moon Father of Victory, Fighter against Infidels, Jahandar Shah Reverse Zarb Dar Al Khilafat Shahjahanabad Mubarak Sanah Ahd (Stuck at Seat of Caliphate Shahjahanabad [in the] Auspecious Year 1 [of his reign]) (Ref. KM#363.21)
  5. Also see this thread. Khusru had realised that it would not be possible for him to capture the throne without an army of his own. He asked Sultan Mubarak for permission to raise an army of 40,000 horsemen, consisting mostly of the Bharvars (Shepherd caste) of Gujarat, a tribe to which Khusru himself belonged. Unaware of his motives, the Sultan agreed. Next, Khusru requested that his relations and friends should be allowed to enter the palace if they had any urgent work with him. This request, too, was granted. Khusru now had his assasination plan ready. Sultan Mubarak was warned of Khusrus's intentions by his former tutor, but paid no heed to the warning. On the night of April 14, 1320 AD, Khusru's troops entered the palace and murdered the royal guards. The noise reached the upper quarters and the Sultan enquired Khusru about it. Khusru replied that the men were trying to catch some horses that had broken loose. As he spoke these words, his men reached Mubarak's room. The sultan tried to run away but Khusru siezed him by the hair and Jaharia, one of Khusru's followers, stabbed him to death. His head was severed and thrown down into the courtyard. Immediately after the murder, Khusru summoned the chief nobles of the court and, with their consent, ascended the throne under the title of Nasir Al-Din Khusru Shah on April 15, 1320. He proceeded to win over most nobles and officers by a lavish distribution of honors and awards. However, his rule did not last long. Ghazi Malik, the warden of the Marches, instigated the lower officers against the new king and formented a rebellion. As Ghazi Malik approached Delhi, Khusru came out to meet the rebels near Indraprastha. Despite his supporter Ain Al-Mulk withdrawing with his troops to Malwa, Khusru fought boldly on September 5, 1320, but was defeated and killed on the same day. Obverse Al Sultan Al Azim Nasir Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (The Sultan, the greatest one, Defender of the World and of Faith) Reverse Abu Al Muzaffar Khusrow Shah 720 (Father of the Conqueror [i.e., the supreme conqueror] Khusrow Shah, 720 AH [1320 AD])
  6. The denomination is "Paisa". ("AE" is for the metal it is made of, i.e., copper.) "Chand Rajas" does not denote a ruler, but a clan. You can read about them here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chand_Kings The specific ruler who issued this coin is not known (at least not from the coin). The Mughals ruled over most of Northern India and the local rulers accepted their authority. Thus, the native states issued coins in the name of the Mughal emperor. In case of later Mughal emperors, however, this "authority" was purely nominal as the empire had weakened considerably. "ND" is used to indacate that the coin is undated (there is no year of issue on it). "KM#" is the numbering system used by the Standard Catalog of World Coins by Chester L. Krause and Clifford Mishler (and also by The Standard Catalog of South Asian Coins and Paper Money, 1981, which I have). C#5 is the specific number given to your coin in The Standard Catalog of South Asian Coins and Paper Money. Since my catalog is pretty old (1981), I'm unable to give you the current value of your coin. Still, 50 p seems like a very good deal to me. One does not come across these coins very often, even here in India.
  7. India, Gurkha Kingdom, Chand Rajas (until 1790 AD), AE Paisa in the name of Mughal emperor Shah Alam II (1759-1806 AD), Almora mint, ND. The KM# according to my ancient catalog is C#5. The second, i.e., right image is the obverse, showing footprints of Lord Vishnu. The mass should be around 5 grams and the diameter around 18 mm.
  8. Hi there! The calligraphy on this one looks pretty crude to me. I suspect this to a religious token in the style of a square Akbar Rupee. What is the weight?
  9. ‘Ala' al-Din Muhammad suffered from many troubles in his later years and success no longer attended him. His naturally violent temper became uncontrollable and he allowed his infatuation for Malik Kafur to influence all his actions. His health failed, dropsy developed, and he died in January 1316. According to some, the infamous Malik Kafur helped his disease to a fatal termination. Malik Kafur placed an infant son of ‘Ala' al-Din (Shihab al-Din ‘Umar) on the throne, reserving all power for himself. He imprisoned, blinded, or killed most other members of the royal family. His criminal rule, however, lasted only thirty-five days and he and his companions were beheaded by their slave guards. Mubarak Khan, a son of ‘Ala' al-Din who had escaped destruction, was placed on the throne as Qutb-al-Din Mubarak. The young sultan turned out to be wholly evil. He was infatuated with a youth named Hasan, whom he ennobled under the style of Khusru Khan. "During his reign of four years and four months, the sultan attended to nothing but drinking, listening to music, debauchery, and pleasure...". By good luck the Mongols did not attack. Had they done so, they would have encounterd little resistance. Qutb-al-Din Mubarak attained two military successes. His officers tightened the hold of his government on Gujarat and he personally led an army against Harpal Deo, the king of Deogiri who had revolted. The king offered little resistance and was barbarously flayed alive. After his triumphant return, the sultan became even worse. "He gave way to wrath and obscenity, to severity, revenge, and heartlessness. He dipped his hands in innocent blood, and he allowed his tongue to utter disgusting and abusive words to his companions and attendants.... He cast aside all regard for decency and presented himself decked out in the trinkets and apparel of a female before his assembled company..." Ultimately, Mubarak was murdered by his minion Khusru Khan "and the basis of the dynasty of ‘Ala' al-Din was utterly razed". Obverse: In centre: Qutb Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (Axis/Pole of world and of faith). In Margins: Abu Al-Muzaffar Khalifat Allah (Father of [the] conqueror [i.e., the supreme conqueror], Deputy of God] Reverse: Mubarak Shah Al-Sultan Ibn Al-Sultan (Mubarak Shah, the Sultan, son of the Sultan), 718 (Ref. R 1023, Goron D271, T 422.1) Breakup of the inscription Obverse Centre: Kaf+Toe+Be=Kutb Alif+Lam=Al Da+Nun+Ye (medial form)=Dunya Waw=Wa Alif+Lam=Al Da+Ye+Nun=Deen Margins: Alif+Be+Waw=Abu Alif+Lam=Al Mim+Zoe+Fe+Re=Muzaffar Khe+Lam+Fe+He (?)=Khalifah Alif+Lam+Lam+He=Allah Reverse Mim+Be+Alif+Re+Kaf=Mubarak Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan Alif+Be+Nun=Ibn Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan
  10. Info at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ala_ud_din_Khilji Billon 6 Gani, 704 or 714 AH (Ref. R991, Goron D232, Tye 418.1) Obverse Al-sultan Al-Azim 'Ala Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (The Sultan, the greatest one, excellence of the world and of the faith) Here is a crude illustration depicting my take on the legend. Reverse Abu Al-Muzaffar Muhammad Shah Al-Sultan (Father of the victorious*, Muhammad Shah, the Sultan) *This is the literal translation. The meaning is best expressed as "The Supreme Conqueror". Break-up of the inscription: Obverse First line: Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan Alif+Lam=Al Second line: 'Ain (initial form)+Zoe+Mim=Azim 'Ain (initial form)+Lam+Alif='Ala Alif+Lam=Al Da (of Dunya) Third line: Nun+Ye (medial form)=Dunya Waw=Wa Alif+Lam=Al Da+Ye+Nun=Deen Reverse First line: Ain+Be+Waw=Abu Alif+Lam=Al Mim+Zoe+Fe+Ra=Muzaffar Second line: Mim+Ha+Mim+Da=Muhammad Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah Third line: Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan
  11. Immediately after the murder of Jalal-ud-din Firuz ‘Ala-ud-din was proclaimed Sultan. The division in Firuz's family helped ‘Ala-ud-din's cause. In total disregard of Arkali Khan, the eldest surviving son, the queen-mother Malikah-i-Jahan declared her second son, Qadr Khan, as Sultan with the title of Rukn-al-din Ibrahim. The supporters of Arkali Khan at Delhi refused to recognize Ibrahim. Ala-ud-din lost no time and marched on Delhi with "iron in one hand and gold in the other". At Bada'un, he met an army sent from Delhi but it was won over by lavish distribution of gold. As Ala-ud-din approached Delhi, Ibrahim came out to give a fight but the bulk of his army deserted him. Ibrahim was forced to flee to Multan with the queen-mother and Ahmed Chap. Ala-ud-din marched into Delhi and resided in the Red Palace of Balban on Oct. 20, 1296. After reorganization, he sent Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan with a large army to Multan to deal with the sons of the late Sultan Firuz. Multan was besieged and the city surrendered. Arkali Khan, Ibrahim, and Ahmad Chap were taken captive alongwith the queen-mother. The two princes were blinded and later executed, while the queen-mother was kept under surveillance at Delhi. Obverse Al-sultan Al-Azim Rukn Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (The Sultan, the greatest one, the pillar/foundation of the world and of the faith) Here is a crude illustration depicting my take on the legend. Reverse Ibrahim Shah Bin Firoz Shah (Ibrahim Shah, son of Firoz Shah) (Ref. R980, Goron D212, Tye 416.1; Rare) Break-up of the inscription: Obverse First line: Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan Alif+Lam=Al Second line: 'Ain (initial form)+Zoe+Mim=Azim Ra+Kaf+Nun=Rukn Alif+Lam=Al Da (of Dunya) Third line: Nun+Ye (medial form)=Dunya Waw=Wa Alif+Lam=Al Da+Ye+Nun=Deen Reverse Alif+Be+Ra+Alif+He+Ye+Min=Ibrahim Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah Be+Nun=Bin Fe+Ye+Re+Waw+Ze=Feroz Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah
  12. Malik Firoz was a Turk of the Khilji tribe. His ancestors, having migrated from Turkistan, had lived in Garmsir in Afghanistan for over 200 years. Firoz's family migrated to Delhi and took up service under the Turkish sultans. Firoz rose to the important position of sar-i-jandar (head of the royal bodygard) and was subsequently appointed the governor of Samana. Later, Sultan Kaiqubad promoted him to the high office of army minister. At this time, he was among the most experienced and powerful Turkish noblemen in Delhi. The orthodox Turks regarded Firoz and his tribe as Afghans and were not too happy with his success. Two Turkish nobels, Malik Aitemar and Malik Surkha, planned to get rid of Firoz and the other "non-Turkish" officers. This led to a conflict between the two parties in which Firoz emerged victorious. Firuz now set himself up as the regent of the infant king Shams al-Din Kayumarth. The next step was to put both Kaiqubad (who was paralyzed) and Kayumarth to death and sieze the throne. This accomplished, Firoz ascended to the throne in March 1290 and assumed the title of Sultan Jalal al-Din Firuz. He was an old man of about 70 at this time. His election was so unpopular that he did not even reside in Delhi. Instead, he lived in Kaiqubad's palace in the village of Kilokhri, the short distance outside. His administration is criticized as having been too lenient. On one occasion, 1000 thugs (cheats) were arrested in Delhi, but instead of punishing them Firoz ordered them to be transported through boats to Gaur, the captal of Bengal, where they were set free. Only on one occasion did he exercise capital punishment. The person executed was a holy man by the name of Sidi Maula, whose death was followed by a dust storm and a severe famine. People believed these events to be a result of the saint's curse on the sultan. In 1294, ‘Ala' al-Din Muhammad, his nephew and son-in law, obtained his permission for leading an expedition into Malwa. But he went much further, plunging into the heart of Deccan, keeping his movements concealed from the court. He marched through Berar and Khandesh and compelled Ramachandra, the king of Deogiri and the Western Deccan, to surrender Ellichpur. ‘Ala' al-Din collected vast amount of treasure and showed no disposition to share it with his sovereign. His treasonable intentions were clear to everybody except his doting uncle and father-in-law Firoz, who closed his ears to all warnings and behaved like a person infatuated. Ultimately, Jalal al-Din was persuaded to place himself in the power of his nephew at Kara in the Allahbad district. When the sultan grasped the traitor's hand, the signal was given. He was thrown down and decapitated. His severed head was stuck on a spear and carried round the camp. Obverse Al-Sultan Al-Azim Jalal Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (The Sultan, the greatest one, the glory of the world and of the faith) Here is a crude illustration depicting my take on the legend. Reverse Inside central square (in Arabic): Firuz Shah. In margin (in Nagari): Sri Sultan Jalaludin (Ref. R966, Goron D200, Tye 414.1) Break-up of the inscription: Obverse First line: Alif+Lam=Al Sin (medial)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan Alif+Lam=Al Second line: Ain (initial)+Zoe+Mim=Azim Jim+Lam+Alif+Lam=Jalal Alif+Lam=Al Da (of Dunya) Third line: Nun+Ye (medial form)=Dunya Waw=Wa Alif+Lam=Al Da+Ye+Nun=Deen Reverse Fe+Ye+Re+Waw+Ze=Feroz Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah
  13. Obverse Allah(u) Akbar Jalla Jalalahu [God (is) greatest, eminent (is) his glory] (Note: I initially thought I saw the figure of an animal, just above the "Jim" of "Jalalahu", but later concluded that it was not intentional.) Reverse Zarb Ahmedabad (year 41, 42, 46, or 44), Ilahi Bahman (Zodiac sign Aquarius) Brekup of the inscription Obverse Alif+Lam+Lam+He=Allah Alif+Kaf+Be+Re=Akbar Jim+Lam=Jalla Jim+Lam+Alif+Lam+Ha (detached form)=Jalalahu Reverse Zad+Re+Be (detached form)=Zarb Alif+Ha+Mim+Dal+Alif+Be+Dal=Ahmedabad Alif+Lam+He+Ye=Ilahi Be+He+Mim+Nun=Bahman
  14. Info at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akbar Obverse Kalima-e-Tayyab: La illaha illallah Mohammad Rasool Allah, "(There is) No god except Allah (and) Muhammad (is the) Prophet (of) Allah" Here is a crude illustration depicting my take on the legend: Reverse Jalal-al din Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi, 982 (Glory of the faith, Emperor Muhammad Akbar, warrior against the infidels) The mint (which appears at the bottom of the reverse) is off the flan but, based on the style of the coin, I think it could be Agra.
  15. Shanshabãnî or Ghorid Dynasty (1149-1206) By the beginning of the 12th century the Shanshabãnî had extended their authority over the other Ghorid chiefs and their power rivaled that of the Ghaznavids on their southern border and the Seljuks on their northern border. Honoring this strength, Malik al-Jibal (meaning "King of the Mountain") laid out the foundations of a great capital city called Firozkoh, which some believe to have been at Jam where a magnificent minaret now stands. Malik Qutubuddin was unable, however, to finish his city for he had a falling out with his brothers (he had seven) and was forced to leave for Ghazni where he was well received and well respected until Sultan Bahram Shah (1118-1152), jealous of his increasing popularity, served him with a glass of poisoned sherbet (1146). His murder led to a relentless enmity between Ghor and Ghazni. One by one, the brothers left their mountain capital with their armies: the first brother captured Ghazni and afterwards sent his army back to Ghor whereupon the Sultan returned to torture him to death; the second brother died on his way to revenge the new death (1149); the third, Alauddin, defeated the Sultan Bahram Shah in the vicinity of modern Kandahar (1151). The Sultan fell back in retreat upon Ghazni which "Alauddin took by storm, and during seven nights and days fired the place, and burnt it with obstinacy and wantonness. . . During these seven days, the air, from the blackness of the smoke, continued as black as night; and those nights, from the flames raging in the burning city, were lighted up as light as day. During these seven days likewise, rapine, plunder and massacre were carried out with the utmost pertinacity and vindictiveness." (Juzjani). Thus, Alauddin earned the title of Jahãnsûz or "World Burner". Ghazni was, however, occupied by the Seljûks soon after and, later on, by the Guzz Turks. It was only in 1175 that the Ghorids succeeded in reoccupying it. Ghiyãs-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Sãm, who succeeded his uncle Alãudd-Dîn Jahãnsûz at Firuz Koh, appointed his younger brother, Shihãb-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Sãm, as the governor of Ghazni. Shihãb-ud-Dîn (1175-1206) occupied Sindh and Multan, ousted the last Ghaznivid ruler from Lahore, defeated the Chauhãns of Ajmer and the Gahadvalas of Kanauj, and extended his conquests upto the borders of Bengal. His conquests were consolidated mainly by his able general, Qutb-ud-Dîn Aibak. Another general of his, Ikhtiyãr-ud-Dîn Bakhtiyãr Khaljî, ousted the forces of Bengal from Lakhnauti and led an unsuccessful expedition into Assam and Bhutan. Meanwhile, Shihãb-ud-Dîn had become the king of Ghor on the death of his brother in 1203 and styled himself as Muizz-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Sãm. He is popularly known as Muhammad Ghori, and regarded as the founder of Muslim rule in India. He was murdered in 1206. There being no children, the empire was divided. Mahmud, son of Ghiyãs-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Sãm, succeeded in Ghor. The east passed to various generals who had conducted Mu’iz Muhammad’s campaigns. These generals were purchased slaves, hence the terms “Slave kings" or "Slave dynasty". Ghazna and its environs was ruled by slave general Taj Al-Din Yildiz. Sind was administered by Nasir Al-Din Qubacha, while Delhi went to Qutb Al-Din Aybak. Mahmud, meanwhile, was deposed in 1212 by the Khwarezmshah, ‘Ala Al-Din Muhammad. Mahmud's coins are scarcer than those of his uncle, and most are rare. On the coins of the type shown below (of Lahore fabric), the Nagari letters follow the models of Sindhi or Punjabi alphabets in the reversal of the lower limb of the "Ha" and the open top of the "Ma". Obverse Al Sultan Al Azim Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (The Sultan, the Magnificent, Mahmud son of Mumammad bin Sam) Reverse Horseman to right; Sri Hamira (Amir) above
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